A comparison of the activity budgets of wild and captive Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra)

V. A. Melfi, A. T.C. Feistner

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

16 Citations (Scopus)


One aim of environmental enrichment techniques is to replicate 'wild-like' behaviour in captivity. In this study, three captive troops of Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca, nigra) were each observed for 100 h in large naturalistic enclosures. Activity budgets constructed from these observations were compared with published data collected from wild troops in the DuaSudara Nature Reserve, Sulawesi (O'Brien & Kinnaird 1997), No significant difference,,vas found between the activity budgets of the wild and the captive macaques, although social, resting and feeding behaviours were significantly different between zoos. There was more rest and less movement and feeding in captivity, although these differences were not significant. The relatively large number of individuals, the wide variety of age-se-v classes and the large and complex naturalistic enclosures provided for them may have been important factors in promoting wild-like behaviour. This study shows that captive primates can exhibit wild-type activity budgets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-222
Number of pages10
JournalAnimal Welfare
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2002
Externally publishedYes



  • Activity budgets
  • Animal welfare
  • Enclosure design
  • Sulawesi crested black macaque
  • Wild versus captive

Cite this