Effect of water temperature on heart rate of horses during water treadmill exercise

Kathryn Nankervis, S. Thomas, David Marlin

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    While there have been several studies of heart rates (HRs) of horses during exercise in water, the effect of exercise in water of different temperatures has not been reported. While the increase in HR during exercise is primarily related to the intensity of exercise and therefore metabolic rate, increasing body temperature can also contribute to elevations in HR separate to muscle metabolic activity per se. When exercising in water, as the thermal conductivity is greater than that of air, the temperature of the water can have a marked influence on body temperature and heat exchange compared with exercise in air. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of water temperature on HR of horses walking for 16 min on a water treadmill in water up to the height of the scapulohumeral joint. Eight horses were studied in three separate exercise tests in water at 13, 16 and 19°C in a randomised order in an ambient temperature between 4 and 10°C. HR was recorded continuously throughout exercise. Mean HR over the 16 min exercise period was the lowest in 13°C water (79 ± 6 bpm), intermediate in 16°C water (89 ± 7 bpm) and the highest in 19°C water (92 ± 5 bpm). A one-way ANOVA and post hoc least significant difference test comparing mean HRs at each temperature showed that there was a significant difference between HRs in water at 13 and 16°C (P < 0.0001) and in water at 13 and 19°C (P < 0.0001), but not between water at 16 and 19°C (P>0.05). Individual HRs for horses during the first minute of exercise in water of 13°C were significantly different from those in water at 16°C (P < 0.0001) and 19°C (P < 0.0001). The gradients of the log HR–time relationships showed a significant difference between exercise in the latter part of exercise in 19°C when compared with 13°C (t = 34.0, P < 0.05) and 16°C (t = 67.4, P < 0.05), suggesting that cardiovascular drift is likely when exercising in temperatures of 19°C and above. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the effect of water temperature in the range of 13–19°C on the HR of horses during water treadmill exercise. Further studies to investigate the effect of different water depth and temperature combinations are indicated.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)127-131
    Number of pages4
    JournalComparative Exercise Physiology
    Volume5
    Issue number3-4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008

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    Exercise equipment
    exercise equipment
    Horses
    heart rate
    exercise
    water temperature
    Heart Rate
    horses
    Temperature
    Water
    water
    body temperature
    Body Temperature
    temperature
    Air
    exercise test
    thermal conductivity
    Thermal Conductivity
    heat transfer
    joints (animal)

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Equine

    Cite this

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    title = "Effect of water temperature on heart rate of horses during water treadmill exercise",
    abstract = "While there have been several studies of heart rates (HRs) of horses during exercise in water, the effect of exercise in water of different temperatures has not been reported. While the increase in HR during exercise is primarily related to the intensity of exercise and therefore metabolic rate, increasing body temperature can also contribute to elevations in HR separate to muscle metabolic activity per se. When exercising in water, as the thermal conductivity is greater than that of air, the temperature of the water can have a marked influence on body temperature and heat exchange compared with exercise in air. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of water temperature on HR of horses walking for 16 min on a water treadmill in water up to the height of the scapulohumeral joint. Eight horses were studied in three separate exercise tests in water at 13, 16 and 19°C in a randomised order in an ambient temperature between 4 and 10°C. HR was recorded continuously throughout exercise. Mean HR over the 16 min exercise period was the lowest in 13°C water (79 ± 6 bpm), intermediate in 16°C water (89 ± 7 bpm) and the highest in 19°C water (92 ± 5 bpm). A one-way ANOVA and post hoc least significant difference test comparing mean HRs at each temperature showed that there was a significant difference between HRs in water at 13 and 16°C (P < 0.0001) and in water at 13 and 19°C (P < 0.0001), but not between water at 16 and 19°C (P>0.05). Individual HRs for horses during the first minute of exercise in water of 13°C were significantly different from those in water at 16°C (P < 0.0001) and 19°C (P < 0.0001). The gradients of the log HR–time relationships showed a significant difference between exercise in the latter part of exercise in 19°C when compared with 13°C (t = 34.0, P < 0.05) and 16°C (t = 67.4, P < 0.05), suggesting that cardiovascular drift is likely when exercising in temperatures of 19°C and above. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the effect of water temperature in the range of 13–19°C on the HR of horses during water treadmill exercise. Further studies to investigate the effect of different water depth and temperature combinations are indicated.",
    author = "Kathryn Nankervis and S. Thomas and David Marlin",
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    doi = "10.1017/S1478061509342358",
    language = "English",
    volume = "5",
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    Effect of water temperature on heart rate of horses during water treadmill exercise. / Nankervis, Kathryn; Thomas, S.; Marlin, David.

    In: Comparative Exercise Physiology, Vol. 5, No. 3-4, 11.2008, p. 127-131.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of water temperature on heart rate of horses during water treadmill exercise

    AU - Nankervis, Kathryn

    AU - Thomas, S.

    AU - Marlin, David

    PY - 2008/11

    Y1 - 2008/11

    N2 - While there have been several studies of heart rates (HRs) of horses during exercise in water, the effect of exercise in water of different temperatures has not been reported. While the increase in HR during exercise is primarily related to the intensity of exercise and therefore metabolic rate, increasing body temperature can also contribute to elevations in HR separate to muscle metabolic activity per se. When exercising in water, as the thermal conductivity is greater than that of air, the temperature of the water can have a marked influence on body temperature and heat exchange compared with exercise in air. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of water temperature on HR of horses walking for 16 min on a water treadmill in water up to the height of the scapulohumeral joint. Eight horses were studied in three separate exercise tests in water at 13, 16 and 19°C in a randomised order in an ambient temperature between 4 and 10°C. HR was recorded continuously throughout exercise. Mean HR over the 16 min exercise period was the lowest in 13°C water (79 ± 6 bpm), intermediate in 16°C water (89 ± 7 bpm) and the highest in 19°C water (92 ± 5 bpm). A one-way ANOVA and post hoc least significant difference test comparing mean HRs at each temperature showed that there was a significant difference between HRs in water at 13 and 16°C (P < 0.0001) and in water at 13 and 19°C (P < 0.0001), but not between water at 16 and 19°C (P>0.05). Individual HRs for horses during the first minute of exercise in water of 13°C were significantly different from those in water at 16°C (P < 0.0001) and 19°C (P < 0.0001). The gradients of the log HR–time relationships showed a significant difference between exercise in the latter part of exercise in 19°C when compared with 13°C (t = 34.0, P < 0.05) and 16°C (t = 67.4, P < 0.05), suggesting that cardiovascular drift is likely when exercising in temperatures of 19°C and above. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the effect of water temperature in the range of 13–19°C on the HR of horses during water treadmill exercise. Further studies to investigate the effect of different water depth and temperature combinations are indicated.

    AB - While there have been several studies of heart rates (HRs) of horses during exercise in water, the effect of exercise in water of different temperatures has not been reported. While the increase in HR during exercise is primarily related to the intensity of exercise and therefore metabolic rate, increasing body temperature can also contribute to elevations in HR separate to muscle metabolic activity per se. When exercising in water, as the thermal conductivity is greater than that of air, the temperature of the water can have a marked influence on body temperature and heat exchange compared with exercise in air. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of water temperature on HR of horses walking for 16 min on a water treadmill in water up to the height of the scapulohumeral joint. Eight horses were studied in three separate exercise tests in water at 13, 16 and 19°C in a randomised order in an ambient temperature between 4 and 10°C. HR was recorded continuously throughout exercise. Mean HR over the 16 min exercise period was the lowest in 13°C water (79 ± 6 bpm), intermediate in 16°C water (89 ± 7 bpm) and the highest in 19°C water (92 ± 5 bpm). A one-way ANOVA and post hoc least significant difference test comparing mean HRs at each temperature showed that there was a significant difference between HRs in water at 13 and 16°C (P < 0.0001) and in water at 13 and 19°C (P < 0.0001), but not between water at 16 and 19°C (P>0.05). Individual HRs for horses during the first minute of exercise in water of 13°C were significantly different from those in water at 16°C (P < 0.0001) and 19°C (P < 0.0001). The gradients of the log HR–time relationships showed a significant difference between exercise in the latter part of exercise in 19°C when compared with 13°C (t = 34.0, P < 0.05) and 16°C (t = 67.4, P < 0.05), suggesting that cardiovascular drift is likely when exercising in temperatures of 19°C and above. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the effect of water temperature in the range of 13–19°C on the HR of horses during water treadmill exercise. Further studies to investigate the effect of different water depth and temperature combinations are indicated.

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    DO - 10.1017/S1478061509342358

    M3 - Journal Article

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    JO - Comparative Exercise Physiology

    JF - Comparative Exercise Physiology

    SN - 1755-2540

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