Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study

Richard Charlton, Michael Gravenor, Anwen Rees, Gareth Knox, Rebecca Hill, Muhammad Rahman, Kerina Jones, Danielle Christian, Julien Baker, Gareth Stratton, Sinead Brophy

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

13 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background
Fitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people.


Methods
1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educational achievement, deprivation and health service usage. Factors associated with fitness were examined using logistic regression, conditional trees and data mining cluster analysis. Focus groups were conducted with children in a deprived school to examine barriers and facilitators to activity for children in a deprived community.


Results
Unfit adolescents are more likely to be deprived, female, have obesity in the family and not achieve in education. There were 3 main clusters for risk of future heart disease/diabetes (high cholesterol/insulin); children at low risk (not obese, fit, achieving in education), children ‘visibly at risk’ (overweight, unfit, many hospital/GP visits) and ‘invisibly at risk’ (unfit but not overweight, failing in academic achievement). Qualitative findings show barriers to physical activity include cost, poor access to activity, lack of core physical literacy skills and limited family support.


Conclusions
Low fitness in the non-obese child can reveal a hidden group who have high risk factors for heart disease and diabetes but may not be identified as they are normal weight. In deprived communities low fitness is associated with non-achievement in education but in non-deprived communities low fitness is associated with female gender. Interventions need to target deprived families and schools in deprived areas with community wide campaigns.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jul 2014

Fingerprint

Education
Cluster Analysis
Heart Diseases
Exercise
Educational Status
Data Mining
Focus Groups
Health Services
Mental Health
Public Health
Obesity
Logistic Models
Cholesterol
Insulin
Weights and Measures
Costs and Cost Analysis
Literacy

Cite this

Charlton, Richard ; Gravenor, Michael ; Rees, Anwen ; Knox, Gareth ; Hill, Rebecca ; Rahman, Muhammad ; Jones, Kerina ; Christian, Danielle ; Baker, Julien ; Stratton, Gareth ; Brophy, Sinead. / Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study. In: BMC Public Health. 2014 ; Vol. 14.
@article{79fec41f9a434c0e88f871c76635b3c3,
title = "Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study",
abstract = "BackgroundFitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people.Methods1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educational achievement, deprivation and health service usage. Factors associated with fitness were examined using logistic regression, conditional trees and data mining cluster analysis. Focus groups were conducted with children in a deprived school to examine barriers and facilitators to activity for children in a deprived community.ResultsUnfit adolescents are more likely to be deprived, female, have obesity in the family and not achieve in education. There were 3 main clusters for risk of future heart disease/diabetes (high cholesterol/insulin); children at low risk (not obese, fit, achieving in education), children ‘visibly at risk’ (overweight, unfit, many hospital/GP visits) and ‘invisibly at risk’ (unfit but not overweight, failing in academic achievement). Qualitative findings show barriers to physical activity include cost, poor access to activity, lack of core physical literacy skills and limited family support.ConclusionsLow fitness in the non-obese child can reveal a hidden group who have high risk factors for heart disease and diabetes but may not be identified as they are normal weight. In deprived communities low fitness is associated with non-achievement in education but in non-deprived communities low fitness is associated with female gender. Interventions need to target deprived families and schools in deprived areas with community wide campaigns.",
author = "Richard Charlton and Michael Gravenor and Anwen Rees and Gareth Knox and Rebecca Hill and Muhammad Rahman and Kerina Jones and Danielle Christian and Julien Baker and Gareth Stratton and Sinead Brophy",
year = "2014",
month = "7",
day = "29",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2458-14-764",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
journal = "BMC Public Health",
issn = "1471-2458",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

Charlton, R, Gravenor, M, Rees, A, Knox, G, Hill, R, Rahman, M, Jones, K, Christian, D, Baker, J, Stratton, G & Brophy, S 2014, 'Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study', BMC Public Health, vol. 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-764

Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study. / Charlton, Richard; Gravenor, Michael; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Hill, Rebecca; Rahman, Muhammad; Jones, Kerina; Christian, Danielle; Baker, Julien; Stratton, Gareth; Brophy, Sinead.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, 29.07.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors associated with low fitness in adolescents – A mixed methods study

AU - Charlton, Richard

AU - Gravenor, Michael

AU - Rees, Anwen

AU - Knox, Gareth

AU - Hill, Rebecca

AU - Rahman, Muhammad

AU - Jones, Kerina

AU - Christian, Danielle

AU - Baker, Julien

AU - Stratton, Gareth

AU - Brophy, Sinead

PY - 2014/7/29

Y1 - 2014/7/29

N2 - BackgroundFitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people.Methods1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educational achievement, deprivation and health service usage. Factors associated with fitness were examined using logistic regression, conditional trees and data mining cluster analysis. Focus groups were conducted with children in a deprived school to examine barriers and facilitators to activity for children in a deprived community.ResultsUnfit adolescents are more likely to be deprived, female, have obesity in the family and not achieve in education. There were 3 main clusters for risk of future heart disease/diabetes (high cholesterol/insulin); children at low risk (not obese, fit, achieving in education), children ‘visibly at risk’ (overweight, unfit, many hospital/GP visits) and ‘invisibly at risk’ (unfit but not overweight, failing in academic achievement). Qualitative findings show barriers to physical activity include cost, poor access to activity, lack of core physical literacy skills and limited family support.ConclusionsLow fitness in the non-obese child can reveal a hidden group who have high risk factors for heart disease and diabetes but may not be identified as they are normal weight. In deprived communities low fitness is associated with non-achievement in education but in non-deprived communities low fitness is associated with female gender. Interventions need to target deprived families and schools in deprived areas with community wide campaigns.

AB - BackgroundFitness and physical activity are important for cardiovascular and mental health but activity and fitness levels are declining especially in adolescents and among girls. This study examines clustering of factors associated with low fitness in adolescents in order to best target public health interventions for young people.Methods1147 children were assessed for fitness, had blood samples, anthropometric measures and all data were linked with routine electronic data to examine educational achievement, deprivation and health service usage. Factors associated with fitness were examined using logistic regression, conditional trees and data mining cluster analysis. Focus groups were conducted with children in a deprived school to examine barriers and facilitators to activity for children in a deprived community.ResultsUnfit adolescents are more likely to be deprived, female, have obesity in the family and not achieve in education. There were 3 main clusters for risk of future heart disease/diabetes (high cholesterol/insulin); children at low risk (not obese, fit, achieving in education), children ‘visibly at risk’ (overweight, unfit, many hospital/GP visits) and ‘invisibly at risk’ (unfit but not overweight, failing in academic achievement). Qualitative findings show barriers to physical activity include cost, poor access to activity, lack of core physical literacy skills and limited family support.ConclusionsLow fitness in the non-obese child can reveal a hidden group who have high risk factors for heart disease and diabetes but may not be identified as they are normal weight. In deprived communities low fitness is associated with non-achievement in education but in non-deprived communities low fitness is associated with female gender. Interventions need to target deprived families and schools in deprived areas with community wide campaigns.

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2458-14-764

DO - 10.1186/1471-2458-14-764

M3 - Journal Article

VL - 14

JO - BMC Public Health

JF - BMC Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

ER -