Functional opsin retrogene in nocturnal moth

Pengjun Xu, Roberto Feuda, Bin Lu, Haijun Xiao, Robert I. Graham, Kongming Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Retrotransposed genes are different to other types of genes as they originate from a processed mRNA and are then inserted back into the genome. For a long time, the contribution of this mechanism to the origin of new genes, and hence to the evolutionary process, has been questioned as retrogenes usually lose their regulatory sequences upon insertion and generally decay into pseudogenes. In recent years, there is growing evidence, notably in mammals, that retrotransposition is an important process driving the origin of new genes, but the evidence in insects remains largely restricted to a few model species. Findings: By sequencing the messenger RNA of three developmental stages (first and fifth instar larvae and adults) of the pest Helicoverpa armigera, we identified a second, intronless, long-wavelength sensitive opsin (that we called LWS2). We then amplified the partial CDS of LWS2 retrogenes from another six noctuid moths, and investigate the phylogenetic distribution of LWS2 in 15 complete Lepidoptera and 1 Trichoptera genomes. Our results suggests that LWS2 evolved within the noctuid. Furthermore, we found that all the LWS2 opsins have an intact ORF, and have an ω-value (ω = 0.08202) relatively higher compared to their paralog LWS1 (ω = 0.02536), suggesting that LWS2 opsins were under relaxed purifying selection. Finally, the LWS2 shows temporal compartmentalization of expression. LWS2 in H. armigera in adult is expressed at a significantly lower level compared to all other opsins in adults; while in the in 1stinstar stage larvae, it is expressed at a significantly higher level compared to other opsins. Conclusions: Together the results of our evolutionary sequence analyses and gene expression data suggest that LWS2 is a functional gene, however, the relatively low level of expression in adults suggests that LWS2 is most likely not involved in mediating the visual process.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMobile DNA
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Opsins
Moths
Genes
Larva
Genome
Messenger RNA
Pseudogenes
Lepidoptera
Insertional Mutagenesis
Open Reading Frames
Sequence Analysis
Insects
Mammals
Gene Expression

Keywords

  • Evolution
  • Expression
  • Gene duplication
  • Noctuidae

Cite this

Xu, Pengjun ; Feuda, Roberto ; Lu, Bin ; Xiao, Haijun ; Graham, Robert I. ; Wu, Kongming. / Functional opsin retrogene in nocturnal moth. In: Mobile DNA. 2016 ; Vol. 7, No. 1.
@article{abd7307eeccc4277ab8e0d9f2af23256,
title = "Functional opsin retrogene in nocturnal moth",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2016 The Author(s). Background: Retrotransposed genes are different to other types of genes as they originate from a processed mRNA and are then inserted back into the genome. For a long time, the contribution of this mechanism to the origin of new genes, and hence to the evolutionary process, has been questioned as retrogenes usually lose their regulatory sequences upon insertion and generally decay into pseudogenes. In recent years, there is growing evidence, notably in mammals, that retrotransposition is an important process driving the origin of new genes, but the evidence in insects remains largely restricted to a few model species. Findings: By sequencing the messenger RNA of three developmental stages (first and fifth instar larvae and adults) of the pest Helicoverpa armigera, we identified a second, intronless, long-wavelength sensitive opsin (that we called LWS2). We then amplified the partial CDS of LWS2 retrogenes from another six noctuid moths, and investigate the phylogenetic distribution of LWS2 in 15 complete Lepidoptera and 1 Trichoptera genomes. Our results suggests that LWS2 evolved within the noctuid. Furthermore, we found that all the LWS2 opsins have an intact ORF, and have an ω-value (ω = 0.08202) relatively higher compared to their paralog LWS1 (ω = 0.02536), suggesting that LWS2 opsins were under relaxed purifying selection. Finally, the LWS2 shows temporal compartmentalization of expression. LWS2 in H. armigera in adult is expressed at a significantly lower level compared to all other opsins in adults; while in the in 1stinstar stage larvae, it is expressed at a significantly higher level compared to other opsins. Conclusions: Together the results of our evolutionary sequence analyses and gene expression data suggest that LWS2 is a functional gene, however, the relatively low level of expression in adults suggests that LWS2 is most likely not involved in mediating the visual process.",
keywords = "Evolution, Expression, Gene duplication, Noctuidae",
author = "Pengjun Xu and Roberto Feuda and Bin Lu and Haijun Xiao and Graham, {Robert I.} and Kongming Wu",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1186/s13100-016-0074-8",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "Mobile DNA",
issn = "1759-8753",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

Functional opsin retrogene in nocturnal moth. / Xu, Pengjun; Feuda, Roberto; Lu, Bin; Xiao, Haijun; Graham, Robert I.; Wu, Kongming.

In: Mobile DNA, Vol. 7, No. 1, 19.10.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Functional opsin retrogene in nocturnal moth

AU - Xu, Pengjun

AU - Feuda, Roberto

AU - Lu, Bin

AU - Xiao, Haijun

AU - Graham, Robert I.

AU - Wu, Kongming

PY - 2016/10/19

Y1 - 2016/10/19

N2 - © 2016 The Author(s). Background: Retrotransposed genes are different to other types of genes as they originate from a processed mRNA and are then inserted back into the genome. For a long time, the contribution of this mechanism to the origin of new genes, and hence to the evolutionary process, has been questioned as retrogenes usually lose their regulatory sequences upon insertion and generally decay into pseudogenes. In recent years, there is growing evidence, notably in mammals, that retrotransposition is an important process driving the origin of new genes, but the evidence in insects remains largely restricted to a few model species. Findings: By sequencing the messenger RNA of three developmental stages (first and fifth instar larvae and adults) of the pest Helicoverpa armigera, we identified a second, intronless, long-wavelength sensitive opsin (that we called LWS2). We then amplified the partial CDS of LWS2 retrogenes from another six noctuid moths, and investigate the phylogenetic distribution of LWS2 in 15 complete Lepidoptera and 1 Trichoptera genomes. Our results suggests that LWS2 evolved within the noctuid. Furthermore, we found that all the LWS2 opsins have an intact ORF, and have an ω-value (ω = 0.08202) relatively higher compared to their paralog LWS1 (ω = 0.02536), suggesting that LWS2 opsins were under relaxed purifying selection. Finally, the LWS2 shows temporal compartmentalization of expression. LWS2 in H. armigera in adult is expressed at a significantly lower level compared to all other opsins in adults; while in the in 1stinstar stage larvae, it is expressed at a significantly higher level compared to other opsins. Conclusions: Together the results of our evolutionary sequence analyses and gene expression data suggest that LWS2 is a functional gene, however, the relatively low level of expression in adults suggests that LWS2 is most likely not involved in mediating the visual process.

AB - © 2016 The Author(s). Background: Retrotransposed genes are different to other types of genes as they originate from a processed mRNA and are then inserted back into the genome. For a long time, the contribution of this mechanism to the origin of new genes, and hence to the evolutionary process, has been questioned as retrogenes usually lose their regulatory sequences upon insertion and generally decay into pseudogenes. In recent years, there is growing evidence, notably in mammals, that retrotransposition is an important process driving the origin of new genes, but the evidence in insects remains largely restricted to a few model species. Findings: By sequencing the messenger RNA of three developmental stages (first and fifth instar larvae and adults) of the pest Helicoverpa armigera, we identified a second, intronless, long-wavelength sensitive opsin (that we called LWS2). We then amplified the partial CDS of LWS2 retrogenes from another six noctuid moths, and investigate the phylogenetic distribution of LWS2 in 15 complete Lepidoptera and 1 Trichoptera genomes. Our results suggests that LWS2 evolved within the noctuid. Furthermore, we found that all the LWS2 opsins have an intact ORF, and have an ω-value (ω = 0.08202) relatively higher compared to their paralog LWS1 (ω = 0.02536), suggesting that LWS2 opsins were under relaxed purifying selection. Finally, the LWS2 shows temporal compartmentalization of expression. LWS2 in H. armigera in adult is expressed at a significantly lower level compared to all other opsins in adults; while in the in 1stinstar stage larvae, it is expressed at a significantly higher level compared to other opsins. Conclusions: Together the results of our evolutionary sequence analyses and gene expression data suggest that LWS2 is a functional gene, however, the relatively low level of expression in adults suggests that LWS2 is most likely not involved in mediating the visual process.

KW - Evolution

KW - Expression

KW - Gene duplication

KW - Noctuidae

U2 - 10.1186/s13100-016-0074-8

DO - 10.1186/s13100-016-0074-8

M3 - Journal Article

VL - 7

JO - Mobile DNA

JF - Mobile DNA

SN - 1759-8753

IS - 1

ER -